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?�?�?�?�?�???�?? ???? ?�???�???�?�?�?� ?�?�???�?????�?? ?z?�???�???�?? ???�?�?? ???? ?z?�?�???� ?�?�?????� ???�???�?�?�?? ???�???�???�?Y ?�?? ???�?�?�?? ?�???�??. ???�?�?�???�, ?�?�?� ?�?????�?�?� ???z?????�, ?�?�?? ?�???� ?z?�?�?�?�?�???? ?�???�???�???�?? ?�?�?�?�???�???�?? ?�????-?z???�???�?????�?�?? ?�?? ?�???�?? ?�?�???�???� ?�?�?�????. ???? ?�?�?�?? ?z?�?Y ?�?� ?�?�?????� ?�?�?s ???? ?�?�?????�?? ???? ???�?�?�?? ?�???�??, ?�?�?� ?�???�?�?� ???�?�???� ?�?�?�????, ?�?z?�?�?? ?�?�?� ?�?� "?�???�?� ???�?�?�?�?? ?�?�???�?�??" ?�???�??, ?�?�?� ?�?????�?�?�, ?z?�?�?? ?�?z?�???? ?�???�?�???z?� ?�?? ?�???�?? ?�?�?? ?�???�?Y ?�?� ???�?� "?�?�?�?�?? ?�???�?�??";[52] ???� – ?�???�?? ?z?�?s – ?�?�?�?�???�?Y ?�?????� ?�???�, ?�?�?� ?�???�?�?� ???z?�?? ?�?�?�?� ?�?�?�??, ?�???�???� ???? "?�?�???� ?�?�???�???� ?�???�?�?????�?�?� ?�?? ?�???�?? ???�?�??????" ?�?z?�?�?�?? ?�?�?�?�?? ?z?�?s – "???�???�" ?z???�?�?� ???�?z?� ?�?�?�?? – ?�???�?�?� ???�?� ?�?? ?�????.[53]

???�?�???????� ?�?�?�??, ?�?�?�?z?? ???? ?????�?�?�?? ?�?�?�?�?�?�?�?? ?�?�?�???? ?�?�?????�???�?�?�?�?? ?�?z???�???�?? ???�?�???�?? ?�?�?z?�?? ???? ?�???�?�???� ?�?�?�?�?�?�?? ???�?�?� ?�?�?? ?�?z?�?�?�?�, ?�?�?� ???� ???�?z?�?�?Y ???? ???�?�?z?? ?�?z?�?�?s – ???? ?�???�???? ?�???�?�???�?? ?????? ?�?z?z?�?�?? – ?�?�?�?�???� ???z?�???? ?�?????�?�?�?�-?�?�???�???� ???? ?�?�?z???? ?�?�?�???????? ?�?? ?z?�?�?�???� ?�?�???�???� ?�?�?�?�?�?�??: ?�?�?????�???�?? ?�?�?�?�?�?�?? ?�?�?�?�?�?�?? ?�?z?�?�???�?? ?�???�, ?�?�?�?�?�???? ?�???�???z?�, ?�?�?�?�, ?�?�???Y ?�?�?�?�?z??, ?�???�???�?Y. ?�?� ?�?z?� ?�?�?� ???�?z?�?�?Y ???? ?�?z???�?� ?�?z???�?� ?�?�?z?? ?�?�?�?� ???? ?�???�?? ???�?�??, ?�???z?�?�?? ?�?�?z?? ???�?�?�?? ?�?�?�?�?�?� ???? ?????? ?�?�?????� ?�?�?� ?z???�?�?�?�?? ?�?z?�?�?�???�?? ???�?�?? ?z?�?�?�?? ?�?�?? ?�???�?s ?�???�?�???� (?�?�?z?�?s ?�?????�?� ?�?z?�?�?? ?�???�?�?�?? ?�?�?�). ?z?� ?�?�?�???�?� ???? ?�???�?�???� ?�?z?�???�?�?� ?�?�?� ???�?�???�?s ???? ?�?�?�?? ?�???�?? ?�???�???�?�?�????. ???�?? ?�???�???�???� ?�?�?�?�?�?? ???�?�?�?? ?�?� ?�???�?� ?????�?Y ???? ?�?�?�?� ???? ???�?? ?�?�?�?? ?�?�???�???� ?�?????�?�?�?�??, ?�?�?�???�???�?? ?�?�?z?�?�?�?�?? ?z?�?�?? ?�?�?�?�?�?� ?�?? ?�?�???�?�???z?� ?�???� ?z?�?? ?�???�?� ?�?�?�?? ?????�???�?? ?�?????�?? ?�?�?�?? 1904.


[1] ?z???�??, ?�?�?�?�????, ???z' 37.

[2] Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Gesamtausgabe, Die Deutsche Ideologie, Erste Abteilung, Band 5, Dietz Verlag, Berlin, 1932,A� p. 193.

[3] ?�'?�???�' ???�???�??, ?�?�?�???� ?�?�???�?�?� ?�???�?�?�: ?z?�?�?? ?�?�?�?�?????�?�?? ?�?�???�?�???�, ?�?�?�???�?? ???�???�?�?�??, ???? ???�?�?�, 1999.

[4] ?�???z?� ???�?�?�???�, ?�?????�?�?Y ?�?�?�?�?�?� ???�?�?�?�?�, ???? ???�?�?�, ??"??, 1980, ???z' 247, 256.

[5] ???�?�?? ???z?�?�?? ?�?�???�?� ???�???�???� ???�?�?�?�???� ?�?�?�?� ?�?? ?�???�?? ?�???�?�?�?Y ?�?� ?�???�?�?�?? ?�?�?�?? ?�?�???�?? ?�?�?�?? ?�-1902, "???�?�???�?�?� ?�?????�?�?� ???� ?�?????�?�" ?�???�?s: ?z?�?�?? ?�???�?� ?�???�??, ?�???s ?�, ???�?�???�?? ?�?�?�?????�?�?�??, ???z' 135-143.

[6] ?�?�?�?Y, ?�???�??, ???z' 218.

[7] ?�???�??, ?�?�?z?Y ?�', ???z' 75.

[8] ?�??, ???z' 76.

[9] ?�???�??, "???�?�?�???�?�: ?�???�??-?�?�???s ???�???�?�?Y ?�?�????", ?�???�?s: ?�?�?�?� ???? ?�???�???? (?�???s ?�'), ???z' 285.

[10] ?�?�???? ?�?�???�?�, "?�???�?�???�?? ???? ?�?�???�?�?�?? ?�???�???�?�?�?�?? ?�?z?�?�?�?� ?�?�?�?�?�?�??", ?�?�?�?�?�?�?? ??', 1984, ???z' 45-54. ?�?�???�?? ?z???z' 47.

[11] ?�???�?? ?????�???Y ?�?z?�?�?�?? 13.3.97, ?�???�?s: ???�???�?? 1895-1897, ???z' 215-216.

[12] ?????� ???�?�?�?z?? ?�?�???�?� ???? ?�?�?�?�?�?s: ???�?????�?Y, ?�???�?� ???�?????�?Y, ?�???s ?�', ?�?�?�?Y, ?�???�?�???�??, 1999 ???z' 293.

[13] ?�?�???? ?�?�?�??, ?�?�?�???�?? ?�?�?�???�???�?�?�, ?z???�?�, ???z??-?�?Y, 1978, ???z' 207-227

[14] Interview Friedrich Engels' mit dem Korrespondenten der Zeitung 'Le Figaro' am 8. Mai 1893, Werke 22, p. 542.

[15] ?�???�??, ?z?�?�?�?? ?�?�?�?�?�?�??, ?�?�?�???�?? ???�???�?�?�??, ???? ???�?�?�, 1978, ???z' 10.

[16] ?�???�??, "?�???�?? ?�?�???�?�?� ?�?�?�?�?�???? ?�?�?z?�?�?�", ?�???�?s: ?�?�?�?� ???? ?�???�????, ???z' 116.

[17] ???�?????�?Y, ?�???�?� ???�?????�?Y, ?�???s ?�', ?�?�?�?Y, ?�???�?�???�??, 1999, ???z' 157-577.

[18] ???�?z???? ?z?�???�??, ???�???�?�?�?�, ???�???�?? ?�?�?????�??, ?z???�?�?�?�, 1946.

[19] ?�??, ???z' 123, 131.

[20] ?�??, ???z' 130.

[21] ?�??, ???z' 144.

[22] ???? ?�?�???? ?�?�???�?�?????�?? ?�???�???�?� ?????�: Paul Hagenloh, "'Socially harmful elements' and the Great Terror", pp. 286-308, In: Sheila Fitzpatrick (Ed.), Stalinism: New Directions, Routledge, Oxford, 2000..A� ?�?�???�?�?? ???z' 295-300; ???? ?�???z?�?�?� ?�?�???�?�?? ?????�: John Torpey, The Invention of the Passport: Surveillance, Citizenship and the State, Cambridge University Press,A� pp. 132-143.a�?

[23] ?????� ???? ?�?s ?�?�?�???� ?�?z?�?�?? ?????�??: ?z?�???�??, ???�???�?�?�?�, ???z' 43.

[24] ?�??, ???z' 144.

[25] ?�??, ???z' 175.

[26] ?�??, ???z' 178.

[27] ?????� ?�?�???� ?�?�?�?�???� – "???? ?�???�?�?�??" – ?�???�??. ?�??, ???z' 173-185.

[28] ?�??, ???z' 173.

[29] ?�??, ???z' 130-131.

[30] Adolf Hitler, Hitler's Table Talk, 1941-1944: His Private Conversations, Enigma Books, New York, 2000, p.425.; ?�?�?�??, ?�?�??????: ?�?�?�?�?� ?�???�?�?z?� ?�?�?�?�???�, ???z' 136.

[31] ?z?�???�??, ???�???�?�?�?�, ???z' 128.

[32] ?�??, ???z' 129.

[33] Karl Kautsky, Thomas More and His Utopia, International Publishers, New York, 1927.

[34] ??.?� ???�?�???z???Y, "Utopia", ?�???�?s: ???�???�?�?�?�, ?�???�?�?�??, ???z' 280.

[35] Francis Bacon, New Atlantis, The Floating Press, 2009.

[36] Tommaso Campanella, The City of the Sun, Cosimo Classics, New York, 2007, p. 7

[37] ?�??, ???z' 15.

[38] ?�??, ???z' 16.

[39] ?�???�??, ???????�?�?�???�?�, ???z' 148.

[40] Edward Bellamya�?, Looking Backward: From 2000 to 1887, Applewood Books, Massachusetts, 2000, p. 40.

[41] ?�??, ???z' 79.

[42] ?�??, ???z' 80.

[43] ?�??, ???z' 48.

[44] ?�??, ???z' 121.

[45] ?�??, ???z' 122.

[46] Manya Gordon, How to Tell Progress from Reaction: Roads to Industrial Democracy, E.P. Dutton & Company, Inc., New York, 1944. P. 34.

[47] ???? ?�?s ?????�: ???�?? ???�, "?z?�???? ?�?�?�?� ?�?�?????�?� ?�?�???�?�??", ?�?�?�?�?�?�?? ?�?�?�?�?? 32, ?�?�?�?� 2015, ???z' 187-196.

[48] ?�"???????�?�?�???�?�" ?�?�?� ?z???�?�?�?? ???�?????z?� ?�?�???�?�?�. ?????�: ?�???�??, ???????�?�?�???�?�, ???z' 148.

[49] ?�???�??, "???�?�?? ?�?�?�?� ?�???�?? ?�?�???�??", ?�???�?s: ?�?�?�?� ???? ?�???�???? (?�???s ?�'), ???z' 174.

[50] ?�???�??, ???????�?�?�???�?�, ???z' 90-91; ?�???�??, ?�?�?z?Y ??', ???z' 87, 115, 128, 160. ?�?�?� ???� ?z?�?�?? ?z?�?�?z?�?? ?z???�?Y-???�?�?? ?�???�?�?�???�?�?�?? ???�?s.

[51] ???�?�???z???Y, Utopia, ???z' 282.

[52] ?�?�?�????, ?�???�?? ?�?�???�???�?�?�?� ?�?? ?�?�?�?????�???�?�, ???z' 16.

[53] ?�?�?�?� ?�?�?�??, "???�?s ?�?????� ?�?�?�?�?�? ?�???�???� ?z?�?�?�?�?? ?�?z?�?�?� '?�?�???� ?�?�?�?�'", ???z' 285-338, ?�???�?s: ???�?� ?�?�?�??, ?�?�?�?�?�?� ?�' ?�?????Y (???�???�?�??), ?�???�?? ???� ?�?�?�?�??, ?�????, ???? ???�?�?�, 2008. ???z' 298.

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אדם רז הינו היסטוריון. מחקריו עוסקים בהיסטוריה פוליטית של המאה ה-20 ובתיאוריה מרקסיסטית. רז עובד במרכז הרעיוני בקרן ברל כצנלסון שבבית ברל.
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